Medieval Illuminated Manuscripts

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In this image, we can see a characteristic thing of the Byzantine bookbinding which is bands extended to the inner edges of the boards in order to have an additional support. No statement about reuse rights of the image
This is an example of Carolingian bookbinding. The sewing type is the Herringbone type. The board is made of wood and there is no decoration on it, as it was not very common except the cases of very luxurious manuscripts. Additionally, there were fastenings in the edge of the book which have not survived nowadays. What books did not have metals in the corners for protection. No statement about the reuse rights of the image.
In Carolingian bookbinding, we see the Herringbone type in which we observe for first time sewing for support, which is a completely western bookbinding invention and is the connection of the previous link-stitch with the later stretch sewing. No statement in respect to the reuse of the image.

Bookbinding

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One category of ornamental initials is this of figured initials where the first letter shape is formed with the use of a figure which can be a human one, or animal, or plant or something else. In this given example we have an anthropomorphic (human form) initial as we can see St George (killing the dragon) participating in the formation of the letter “M”. No statement in respect to the copyright, probably under the institution (British Library) or Public Domain.
The calendars belong to display panels. They are found in liturgical and devotional books; they can be either rich or non-rich in decoration. They have always a table format and many colours which works as a marker of important dates: holidays, feast, celebrations. Additionally, as each province used to have its own special days many a time a calendar can be used as a geographical indicator of the manuscript. No statement about copyrights, probably under British Library or Public Domain.
In this image, we can see the author’s portrait of the manuscript. According to Weitzman, this is the oldest book illustration of western Europe. The author could be represented in many ways but the most popular was that which was depicting him or her during the process of writing. Although its origin comes from paganism this motif was used by Christians. No statement about copyrights, presumably under the Institution which has the manuscript or under Public Domain.

The Decoration of the Codex

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The work of copyists in medieval times was challenging and demanded the full focus of the scribe in a not so comfortable environment such as due to cold. As a result, many a time copyists used to make mistakes. One type of mistakes was the “homoioteleuton” or "Saut du meme au meme" which means that the same or similar in vision words was in a nearby location. This had as a result of the copyist to jump lines and miss the content in between. No statement about copyright.
This is an example of a humanistic script. This way of writing was developed in Italy and it was not a result of letters evolution. Gothic letters were no so easily readable, so humanistic script was an answer of Italy for a more clear way of writing based on of the previous times Carolingian letters. Copyright:  The image belongs to the British Library and it is offered for private and personal use.
This is an example of Gothic Writing. Gothic letters were characterised for their vertical and angular shape like small polygons. They were also narrower. They were written with a very intense black ink having as a result a big contrast with the parchment or paper. It is noteworthy the fact that due to this complex form of the letters they were not easily readable. No statement about the copyright, presumably under the institution in which belongs the manuscript or under Public Domain.

Writing

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The text in the codex is not centralised in the page, that is as we can easily notice the upper and the inner margins are smaller than the lower and the outer margins. Although this was not the rule in the Middle Ages, it was the most common and it was applied even later in the printed books-nowadays as well. The main purpose was to protect the text from a trimming during binding and it was more comfortable for the reader. No statement of the copyright.
In this image, we can see a greek text written in papyrus leaf. It is noteworthy the fact that copyists didn't use to practice ruling in case of papyrus as its horizontal fibres were guiding him pretty well, so further ruling was unnecessary. No statement in respect to the copyright.
Observing this medieval manuscript horizontal lines are noticed. This was the ruling method used for guiding the copyist where to write his text to have a beautiful and well written result. Those horizontal lines are called by codicologists as “text lines” or “lines for writing” and the sum of them is the “line ruling”. No statement in respect to the copyright, presumably by the institution in which belongs the manuscript.

The Preparation of the Page

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Although the basic ink used during medieval times was black, it is well known that scribes utilised colour inks as well in order to decorate their manuscripts. The red colour as it is depicted in the image was very famous. For obtaining the red colour-mineral pigment, were used cinnabar and minium which were toxic and very dangerous for human health. Copyright: No reference of the copyright of the image.
This writing instrument is called stylus, It was used during medieval times for writing in wax tablets. The spatula shape at the top had the usage for erasing and then rewriting the tablet. No statement in respect to the copyright of the image.
Method of writing in quires. Here it seems that the copyist kept the original sheet uncut and wrote on it his text. It was essential attention to be paid by the scribe about the exact place and the correct direction he should write because it was easy to make a mistake. The result could be noticed only at the end when the sheet was cut so 16 pages would show if there is a correct order. No mention in respect to the copyright, probably under the institution in which belongs the manuscript.

Inks and Quires

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The Codex Purpureus Rossanensis from the sixth century is a masterpiece. The letters are made by silver or gold and the parchment is dyed in purple colour. This purple colour was very expensive to be made and its price was higher than that of gold and silver. No statement of copyrights, perhaps by the Institution.
This is an example  of Chained books or cadenati books  and this one in particular is dated in 1185-1199. That kind of books was chained in the bookshelves or desks in order to be protected from a possible damage or theft. Copyright: Indiana University, Lilly Library. Ricketts 193. www.digital-scriptorium.org Creative Commons
Parchment was a writing material made of animal skin such as of calf, goat or sheep. The process of its production was time-consuming and complicated, so professionals were demanded. If accidentally during the process a hole was made, even small, it tended to grow taking a circular or oval -in this case, shape. If this accident was discovered soon the maker used to sew it in order to prevent further growth of the hole. No statement in respect of the copyright.

Writing Materials and Book Formats

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the diagram shows how to use scissors and wire
binding10
In this image, we can see a characteristic thing of the Byzantine bookbinding which is bands extended to the inner edges of the boards in order to have an additional support. No statement about reuse rights of the image
a wooden box with string wrapped around the top and bottom, sitting on a white surface
Historical Binding: A Carolingian Cutaway Model
This is an example of Carolingian bookbinding. The sewing type is the Herringbone type. The board is made of wood and there is no decoration on it, as it was not very common except the cases of very luxurious manuscripts. Additionally, there were fastenings in the edge of the book which have not survived nowadays. What books did not have metals in the corners for protection. No statement about the reuse rights of the image.
several stacks of folded white paper sitting on top of each other
Herringbone Stitching
In Carolingian bookbinding, we see the Herringbone type in which we observe for first time sewing for support, which is a completely western bookbinding invention and is the connection of the previous link-stitch with the later stretch sewing. No statement in respect to the reuse of the image.
an old leather book opened and closed on a black background with gold trimmings
Texture PNG book medieval old
The Gothic medieval bookbinding is dated between the 14th and 16th century. The process was simpler than the previous ones Romanesque and Carolingian bookbinding. The board of the books was made by wood mostly or in cardboard. For making the spine stronger they used to cover it with glue. Another characteristic of gothic bookbinding was the use of fastenings. The most precious manuscripts used to have fastening made totally by metal. No statement in respect to the copyright.
an old book with intricate designs on the front and back cover is open to show its contents
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This is an example of Islamic bookbinding. Its characteristic is the extension of the end cover in order to encircle the edge of the book when it is of course closed and to “fasten” in the front cover. No statement about the copyright of the image.
One category of ornamental initials is this of figured initials where the first letter shape is formed with the use of a figure which can be a human one, or animal, or plant or something else. In this given example we have an anthropomorphic (human form) initial as we can see St George (killing the dragon) participating in the formation of the letter “M”. No statement in respect to the copyright, probably under the institution (British Library) or Public Domain. Illuminated Script, Occult Imagery, Historiated Initial, Medieval Illustration, St Michael Prayer, Lives Of The Saints, 29 September, Medieval Life
One category of ornamental initials is this of figured initials where the first letter shape is formed with the use of a figure which can be a human one, or animal, or plant or something else. In this given example we have an anthropomorphic (human form) initial as we can see St George (killing the dragon) participating in the formation of the letter “M”. No statement in respect to the copyright, probably under the institution (British Library) or Public Domain.
an old book with some writing on the pages and numbers in red, white and blue
Medieval calendars | The British Library
The calendars belong to display panels. They are found in liturgical and devotional books; they can be either rich or non-rich in decoration. They have always a table format and many colours which works as a marker of important dates: holidays, feast, celebrations. Additionally, as each province used to have its own special days many a time a calendar can be used as a geographical indicator of the manuscript. No statement about copyrights, probably under British Library or Public Domain.
an open book with writing on it and pictures of people in the pages, all surrounded by flowers
Portraits of Christine de Pizan in The Queen’s Manuscript
In this image, we can see the author’s portrait of the manuscript. According to Weitzman, this is the oldest book illustration of western Europe. The author could be represented in many ways but the most popular was that which was depicting him or her during the process of writing. Although its origin comes from paganism this motif was used by Christians. No statement about copyrights, presumably under the Institution which has the manuscript or under Public Domain.
an open book with a drawing of a building in the middle and writing on it
Historiated Initial
Historiated initials are called those initials which have a relation with the context of the text. This form appeared later than other initial types as our first witnesses come from the 8th and 10th century in Latin and Greek text respectively. Rights: CC-BY-3.0
an old book with a painting on it's cover and some writing on the page
Book of Hours, MS M.1114 fol. 73v - Images from Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts
In this manuscript we can see that the margins are decorated according to the pictorial illusionism style. Pictorial Illusionism has as main motives vegetables and flowers, but they are depicted with a realistic way (on the contrary of rinceaux style The Book of Hours is one of the first witnesses we have of this type of margin decoration. No statement in respect to copyrights probably under the institution or Public Domain.
an open book with red writing on the pages and black paper in it's center
Saut du même au même
The work of copyists in medieval times was challenging and demanded the full focus of the scribe in a not so comfortable environment such as due to cold. As a result, many a time copyists used to make mistakes. One type of mistakes was the “homoioteleuton” or "Saut du meme au meme" which means that the same or similar in vision words was in a nearby location. This had as a result of the copyist to jump lines and miss the content in between. No statement about copyright.
an open book with writing on it and two lines of text in the bottom right corner
Humanistic Scripts
This is an example of a humanistic script. This way of writing was developed in Italy and it was not a result of letters evolution. Gothic letters were no so easily readable, so humanistic script was an answer of Italy for a more clear way of writing based on of the previous times Carolingian letters. Copyright: The image belongs to the British Library and it is offered for private and personal use.
This is an example of Gothic Writing. Gothic letters were characterised for their vertical and angular shape like small polygons. They were also narrower. They were written with a very intense black ink having as a result a big contrast with the parchment or paper. It is noteworthy the fact that due to this complex form of the letters they were not easily readable. No statement about the copyright, presumably under the institution in which belongs the manuscript or under Public Domain. Writing Gothic, Gothic Writing, Beautiful Books, Public Domain
This is an example of Gothic Writing. Gothic letters were characterised for their vertical and angular shape like small polygons. They were also narrower. They were written with a very intense black ink having as a result a big contrast with the parchment or paper. It is noteworthy the fact that due to this complex form of the letters they were not easily readable. No statement about the copyright, presumably under the institution in which belongs the manuscript or under Public Domain.
an old book with writing on it
Vulgata, Luke, Carolingian Minuscule
This is a manuscript written in Carolingian minuscule. Carolingian minuscule was an excellent book hand characterised for its clarity, calligraphy, and legibility. There weren’t variations in respect to the letters formation. Copyright: British Library.
an old book with writing on it and two lines of text written in cursive ink
Miniscule script - Half Uncial
This is a Greek manuscript written in Half-Uncial letter. Half-Uncial letters were a lower-case script. However, with respect to Half-Uncial letters, copyists were not following strict rules in order to to make this type of writing clearly distinct form. Copyrights: Creative Commons.