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Two pairs of marriage crowns from the Pontos region.  'Rum' (Anatolian Greek), 19th century. Top: With filigree green enamel and imitation precious gems.  Probably made in Saframpolis/Safranbolu.  18 cm diameter. Bottom: From the church of St. Stephanos at Saframpolis/Safranbolu.  Made by the local craftsman Hadji Konstantinos.  Dated 1855.  Dedicated by Elisabeth & Stephanos Matentzioglou.  18 cm diameter.  (Both: Benaki Museum, Athens).

Two pairs of marriage crowns from the Pontos region. 'Rum' (Anatolian Greek), 19th century. Top: With filigree green enamel and imitation precious gems. Probably made in Saframpolis/Safranbolu. 18 cm diameter. Bottom: From the church of St. Stephanos at Saframpolis/Safranbolu. Made by the local craftsman Hadji Konstantinos. Dated 1855. Dedicated by Elisabeth & Stephanos Matentzioglou. 18 cm diameter. (Both: Benaki Museum, Athens).

A Pontic Greek woman in traditional costume.  Late-Ottoman era, ca. 1890.

A Pontic Greek woman in traditional costume. Late-Ottoman era, ca. 1890.

Traditional festive costumes of the 'Rum' (Greek-Orthodox)inhabitants from Trebizonde/Trabzon (eastern Black Sea coast).  Late-Ottoman era, urban style, early 20th century.

Traditional festive costumes of the 'Rum' (Greek-Orthodox)inhabitants from Trebizonde/Trabzon (eastern Black Sea coast). Late-Ottoman era, urban style, early 20th century.

Costume of the (Greek) people's militia of the Eastern Pontos/Black Sea region).  Early 20th century.  Some of the names used by the Greeks are (almost) identical to the names Turks use: Pashlik = başlık, Fesikia = fişeklik, Kaman = kama, Zipkas = zıvga.  Of course, the costume is almost identical too.

Costume of the (Greek) people's militia of the Eastern Pontos/Black Sea region). Early 20th century. Some of the names used by the Greeks are (almost) identical to the names Turks use: Pashlik = başlık, Fesikia = fişeklik, Kaman = kama, Zipkas = zıvga. Of course, the costume is almost identical too.

Portrait of a Greek (Pontos) man from the Giresun-Trabzon region.  Early 20th century.

Portrait of a Greek (Pontos) man from the Giresun-Trabzon region. Early 20th century.

Traditional Greek headgear of the Eastern Pontic region (i.a. Giresun).  Early 20th century style.

Traditional Greek headgear of the Eastern Pontic region (i.a. Giresun). Early 20th century style.

Traditional festive costume from 'Pontos' (= Turkish Black Sea coast & hinterland).  Clothing style: 'Rum' (Anatolian Greek), early 20th century.  This is a contemporary workshop-made copy, as worn by folk dance groups.  (Source: Stamco Costumes; www.greek-costumes.com).

Traditional festive costume from 'Pontos' (= Turkish Black Sea coast & hinterland). Clothing style: 'Rum' (Anatolian Greek), early 20th century. This is a contemporary workshop-made copy, as worn by folk dance groups. (Source: Stamco Costumes; www.greek-costumes.com).

An ‘uçkur’ (sash/waist band), generally worn by women. From western Anatolia, ca. early 20th c. Cotton, adorned with two-sided (= identical on both sides) embroidery in silk & golden metallic thread + small motifs in ‘tel kırma’ (narrow metallic strips stuck through the fabric and then folded). Probably an apprentice's work (= young girl). The 'Greek cross'-motives indicate a possible 'Rum' (Greek Anatolian) origin. (Inv.n° brdw041 - Kavak Collection - Antwerpen/Belgium).

An ‘uçkur’ (sash/waist band), generally worn by women. From western Anatolia, ca. early 20th c. Cotton, adorned with two-sided (= identical on both sides) embroidery in silk & golden metallic thread + small motifs in ‘tel kırma’ (narrow metallic strips stuck through the fabric and then folded). Probably an apprentice's work (= young girl). The 'Greek cross'-motives indicate a possible 'Rum' (Greek Anatolian) origin. (Inv.n° brdw041 - Kavak Collection - Antwerpen/Belgium).

A 'Rum' (Anatolian Greek) woman in festive costume, which includes a very high hat.  From Burdur, urban fashion, ca. 1870.

A 'Rum' (Anatolian Greek) woman in festive costume, which includes a very high hat. From Burdur, urban fashion, ca. 1870.

Amulet necklace, for a woman.  Rum (Anatolian Greek), ca. 1900.  From the island of Kastillorizo (2 km south of Kaş).  Silver plated copper and low-grade silver.  Featuring a theological scene (the Mother of God enthroned) surrounded by eight saints' heads (in medallions) and a Serafim (on top).

Amulet necklace, for a woman. Rum (Anatolian Greek), ca. 1900. From the island of Kastillorizo (2 km south of Kaş). Silver plated copper and low-grade silver. Featuring a theological scene (the Mother of God enthroned) surrounded by eight saints' heads (in medallions) and a Serafim (on top).

Traditional festive costume of the Greek-Orthodox inhabitants from the Pontos region (Black Sea coast and hinterland).  Late-Ottoman era, urban style, early 20th century. This is a recent recomposed copy, as worn by folk dance groups.

Traditional festive costume of the Greek-Orthodox inhabitants from the Pontos region (Black Sea coast and hinterland). Late-Ottoman era, urban style, early 20th century. This is a recent recomposed copy, as worn by folk dance groups.

Four traditional costumes from the Pontos (Black Sea) region.  Clothing style: Rum (Anatolian Greek), early 20th century.  These are contemporary workshop-made copies, as worn by folk dance groups.  (Source: Stamco Costumes; www.greek-costumes.com).

Four traditional costumes from the Pontos (Black Sea) region. Clothing style: Rum (Anatolian Greek), early 20th century. These are contemporary workshop-made copies, as worn by folk dance groups. (Source: Stamco Costumes; www.greek-costumes.com).

Traditional festive costume from 'Pontos' (= Turkish Black Sea coast & hinterland).  Clothing style: 'Rum' (Anatolian Greek), early 20th century.  This is a contemporary workshop-made copy, as worn by folk dance groups.  (Source: Stamco Costumes; www.greek-costumes.com).

Traditional festive costume from 'Pontos' (= Turkish Black Sea coast & hinterland). Clothing style: 'Rum' (Anatolian Greek), early 20th century. This is a contemporary workshop-made copy, as worn by folk dance groups. (Source: Stamco Costumes; www.greek-costumes.com).

Pontian traditional costumes ('Rum' = Anatolian Greek), northeastern Anatolia, ca. early 20th century.

Pontian traditional costumes ('Rum' = Anatolian Greek), northeastern Anatolia, ca. early 20th century.

Traditional woman's hat.  Rum (Anatolian Greek) from the Pontos region, style of the early 20th century.  This is a (good) recent workshop-made copy, as worn by folk dance groups.

Traditional woman's hat. Rum (Anatolian Greek) from the Pontos region, style of the early 20th century. This is a (good) recent workshop-made copy, as worn by folk dance groups.

Traditional women costume of the Greek-Orthodox inhabitants of the Pontos region (Black Sea coast and hinterland). Style: early 20th century. The Greek-Orthodox were expelled from Turkey in 1923, in exchange for Muslim populations from Greece. At this occasion Turkey lost considerable cultural and economic potential, and the expelled lost their homeland.

Traditional women costume of the Greek-Orthodox inhabitants of the Pontos region (Black Sea coast and hinterland). Style: early 20th century. The Greek-Orthodox were expelled from Turkey in 1923, in exchange for Muslim populations from Greece. At this occasion Turkey lost considerable cultural and economic potential, and the expelled lost their homeland.