smut: a group of fungi in the Basidiomycetes that typically releases masses of black dusty teliospores at maturity (corn smut caused by Ustilago zeae)

smut: a group of fungi in the Basidiomycetes that typically releases masses of black dusty teliospores at maturity (corn smut caused by Ustilago zeae)

rust: a disease caused by a specialized group of Basidiomycetes that often produces spores of a rusty color (stem rust of wheat)

pustule: small blisterlike elevation of epidermis formed as spores emerge (pustules of wheat stem rust urediniospores)

tumor (syn. gall): abnormal swelling or localized outgrowth, often roughly spherical, produced by a plant as a result of attack by a fungus, bacterium, nematode, insect or other organism (crown gall caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens on apple)

hyperplasia (adj. abnormal increase in the number of cells, often resulting in the formation of galls or tumors (crown gall caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens on apple)

scab: roughened, crustlike diseased area on the surface of a plant organ (apple scab caused by Venturia inaequalis)

scab: roughened, crustlike diseased area on the surface of a plant organ (apple scab caused by Venturia inaequalis)

zonate: pertaining to a targetlike development of tree canker, characterized by successive, perennial rings of callus; referring to any symptom appearing in concentric rings (zonate canker caused by Nectria galligena in apple)

zonate: pertaining to a targetlike development of tree canker, characterized by successive, perennial rings of callus; referring to any symptom appearing in concentric rings (zonate canker caused by Nectria galligena in apple)

yellows: disease characterized by chlorosis and stunting of the host plant (aster yellows phytoplasma infection in romaine lettuce)

yellows: disease characterized by chlorosis and stunting of the host plant (aster yellows phytoplasma infection in romaine lettuce)

witches' broom: disease symptom characterized by an abnormal, massed, brushlike development of many weak shoots arising at or close to the same point (witches' brooms on Douglas-fir caused by dwarf mistletoe, Arceuthobium sp.)

witches' broom: disease symptom characterized by an abnormal, massed, brushlike development of many weak shoots arising at or close to the same point (witches' brooms on Douglas-fir caused by dwarf mistletoe, Arceuthobium sp.

wilt: drooping of leaves and stems from lack of water (inadequate water supply or excessive transpiration); vascular disease that interrupts normal water uptake (wilted tobacco)

wilt: drooping of leaves and stems from lack of water (inadequate water supply or excessive transpiration); vascular disease that interrupts normal water uptake (wilted tobacco)

white rust: common name usually used for diseases caused by Oomycetes in the genus Albugo (Albugo candida on a brassica leaf).

white rust: common name usually used for diseases caused by Oomycetes in the genus Albugo (Albugo candida on a brassica leaf).

white rot (of wood): type of wood decay resulting from enzymatic action of fungi; it degrades all components of wood, including lignin, leaving the wood light-colored and spongy

white rot (of wood): type of wood decay resulting from enzymatic action of fungi; it degrades all components of wood, including lignin, leaving the wood light-colored and spongy

water-soaked: describing disease symptom of plants or lesions that appear wet, dark, and usually sunken and translucent (bacterial fruit blotch of watermelon)

water-soaked: describing disease symptom of plants or lesions that appear wet, dark, and usually sunken and translucent (bacterial fruit blotch of watermelon)

virescence: state or condition in which normally white or colored tissues (e.g. flower petals) become green (a partially virescent flower head in a hydrangea infected with a phytoplasma)

virescence: state or condition in which normally white or colored tissues (e. flower petals) become green (a partially virescent flower head in a hydrangea infected with a phytoplasma)

vein banding: symptom of virus disease in which regions along veins are either darker green or distinctly more yellow than tissue between veins (vein banding symptom of common bean mosaic virus in bean)

vein banding: symptom of virus disease in which regions along veins are either darker green or distinctly more yellow than tissue between veins (vein banding symptom of common bean mosaic virus in bean)

vascular wilt disease: a xylem disease that disrupts normal uptake of water and minerals, resulting in wilting and yellowing of foliage (bacterial wilt disease of melon caused by Erwinia tracheiphila)

vascular wilt disease: a xylem disease that disrupts normal uptake of water and minerals, resulting in wilting and yellowing of foliage (bacterial wilt disease of melon caused by Erwinia tracheiphila)

stunting: reduction in height of a vertical axis resulting from a progressive reduction in the length of successive internodes or a decrease in their number (phytoplasma-infected poinsettias (right) are stunted compared to noninfected plants)

stunting: reduction in height of a vertical axis resulting from a progressive reduction in the length of successive internodes or a decrease in their number (phytoplasma-infected poinsettias (right) are stunted compared to noninfected plants)

stippling: series of small dots or speckles in which chlorophyll is absent (left: stippling of citrus leaf, caused by the citrus red mite)

stippling: series of small dots or speckles in which chlorophyll is absent (left: stippling of citrus leaf, caused by the citrus red mite)

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